Jerusalem Lecture in the Byzantine Era

Jerusalem Lecture in the Byzantine Era

Christian Byzantine era

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Jerusalem under Byzantine rule:

Jerusalem under Byzantine rule (324-638 AD): This stage of Jerusalem’s history is full of historical, cultural and political heritage. supported by historical documents, It begins with Emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, And made it an official religion of the Byzantine state in 324 AD, The seat of the empire moved it to a new capital, Constantinople, located on the Bosphorus.
Construction works flourished in Jerusalem during the reign of Emperor Constantine. His mother ordered the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and another church on the Mount of Olives. And the construction of the Church of the Martyrs on the Holy Sepulchre. Constantine continued to implement the empire’s policy towards the Jews by forbidding them to live in Jerusalem. They were only allowed to visit her.
While Christians breathed a sigh of relief after a long period of religious persecution, The character of the city changed rapidly after Constantine, And it was filled with monks and nuns, Each city with a Christian majority was appointed a bishop, The post of Patriarchate of Jerusalem was created, Its Patriarch assumed the Archbishop of Palestine and the Arabs of Palestine held many religious positions. Among them is Patriarch Elias (Elijah) the Arab, to Jerusalem in the period between 494 – 518 AD and Patriarch Boutros the Arab originally from Beit Jibreen, He was elected Patriarch of Jerusalem between (525-552 AD).

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Jerusalem under Persian Occupation:

In the late Byzantine period, the Persians occupied the city of Jerusalem between (614-628 AD) after a siege that lasted forty days. And they slaughtered a large number of its people, And they burned the churches, At the instigation of the Jews who joined the Persian army, Jerusalem remained in the hands of the Persians until Emperor Heraclius recaptured it from them in 628 AD.
After recovering Jerusalem from the Persians, Heraclius issued a decree expelling the Jews from it. and not to allow them to come close to it for at least three miles, And he killed those who won it from among them, The rest fled to the wilderness, mountains, valleys, and to Egypt. This is due to their cooperation with the Persian occupation, their killing of Christians, and their destruction of churches, and Jerusalem remained under Byzantine rule until it was conquered by Muslims by Omar Ibn Al-Khattab after their victory over the Byzantines in 638 AD.

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