Lecture entitled “The Geography of Jerusalem”

Geography of Jerusalem

Within the series of lectures on the history of Jerusalem / 1

D. Essam Adwan


Jerusalem Location:

The city of Jerusalem is located astronomically on a longitude (35:13) east of Greenwich (31:47) north of the equator. It occupies the position of the heart in Palestine, It is in the middle of the Highland Region, which consists of the Nablus Mountains in the north and the Hebron Mountains in the south, The Jerusalem Mountains are in the middle. It represents a link between the coastal plain region in the west on the one hand, and the Jordan Valley in the east on the other hand.
It also connects the cities of northern and southern Palestine, And the cities of the coastal plain and the Jordan Valley, The city is antennatically (25) km from the Dead Sea. And (55) km from the Mediterranean Sea.

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The city of Jerusalem is scarce in natural resources, It formed a repellent locus for the population, However, the religious and historical importance of the city constituted a great controversy factor that exceeded the possibilities of the economic position, The city has been crowded with people throughout the ages.

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Geography of Jerusalem:

The Jerusalem area is topologically part of the Central Palestinian Highlands Territory , which consists of the mountains of Nablus, Jerusalem and Hebron.
The Jerusalem Plateau is bordered to the west by the Palestinian coastal plain, and the lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea to the east, And the mountains of Nablus from the north, and the Hebron Plateau from the south.

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Eastern Slopes:

Located between the Jordan Valley, the nucleus and the central plateau, It is steep, Its altitude ranges between 100-250 meters above sea level, They are generally rugged, dry, Its soil suffers from erosion, It is a repellent environment for human stability.

Western Slopes:

less steep, more moisture and rainfall, The soil cover is deeper, allowing for relatively dense vegetation, This encouraged human stability, Its altitude ranges between 250-300 meters above sea level.


Located between the eastern slopes and the western cliffs, Its altitude ranges between 750-800 m, It has a number of mountain masses, including:
Mount of the Prophet Samuel: Its height is 875 m and it is 8 km from Jerusalem to the north, On top of it is the Nabi Samuel Mosque, which was confiscated by the occupation authorities and built on it and nearby a settlement for religious Jews.

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Mount Scopus: Its height is 825 meters, It is separated from the Mount of Olives by Wadi Joz.
Mount of Olives: Known as Jabal Al-Tur, It is located to the east of the Old Town, Its height is 820, It was known as the Mount of Olives because of the abundance of olives on it, It is separated from the Old City by the Valley of Fire.

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Jerusalem Climate:

The Jerusalem area is characterized by a clear variation in its climatic characteristics, and the reason for this is the variation of the terrain, There are heights of more than 800 meters, The eastern slopes of the Dead Sea drop to 400 meters below ground level, This leads to a temperature difference, As we rise or fall 150 meters, the temperature varies one degree.



In August, it reached 28.64 ° C, The lowest temperature in January was 6.12 degrees Celsius.


average up to 584 mm, And most of them fall in the months of January and February, The average rainy days are 55 days per year.


Its annual rate is 56.94%, and the coming Khamasin winds negatively affect the relative humidity, The relative humidity in May reaches 45% and in January 66.9%.

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The most important water resources in Jerusalem:

Silwan Spring : It is located south of the city, and the annual flow rate of this spring is (70) thousand cubic meters of water.
Solomon’s Pools : Attributed to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, it is 11 km south of Jerusalem in the Bethlehem area, from which water was drawn to the city of Jerusalem through a canal known as the Sabeel Canal, extending 21 km depending on gravity and slope.
At the time of the British occupation, the British withdrew the water of Al-Aroub (250,000 gallons per day) due to the water crisis in the city.
The Israeli occupation currently meets the city’s needs through the Qatari carrier.
There are 20 Palestinian communities north of Jerusalem that take their water needs from the Palestinian Jerusalem Water Company.


Source: Jerusalem History Course No. (0104) at Al-Quds Open University.

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